Introduction

About Pornography: A Public Health Crisis

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The pornography of today has created an unprecedented epidemic of sexual harm. Children and young people are being exposed to violent and degrading content, which by default has served as their sex education. Once a social or health issue involves problems that affect individuals or groups beyond their capacity to correct – responsibility shifts from individual accountability to holding the forces and influences that cause it accountable. While educating individual parents to guide and protect their children is always part of any prevention plan, the problem is well beyond what individual parents and children can do to protect themselves.

Science and research is catching up with the concerns of many and is now showing a wide range of harm caused by pornography. Law enforcement and our jails are overwhelmed with the results of sex trafficking and child sexual abuse. Children are at greatest risk as research shows such exposure affects their developing brains and shapes their sexual templates. The younger and more often children are exposed to such content the more problematic it becomes. Adolescents are more susceptible to forming addictions than adults because the dopamine neurons in their nucleus accumbens (i.e. the brain’s pleasure center) are much more active and have an exaggerated plasticity in response to addictive stimulus. Thus, it can be said that a propensity for addiction is more strongly “hardwired” into the adolescent brain. Internet pornography consumption by adolescents is associated with risky sexual behavior that can have profoundly adverse effects such as anal sex, multiple sexual partners, and substance use during sex. Such outcomes are not surprising in light of research into how the human brain develops which shows that adolescents are not as readily able to access their front lobes—the portion of the brain that controls impulses and allows for rapid, smart decision making.

Like other public health issues, not all exposed have the same response. However, for many, repeated exposure and use is correlated to problematic sexual behaviors that can lead to porn-induced erectile dysfunction, divorce or failed relationships, and sometimes sexually aggressive and violent behaviors. Research is also showing correlations to violence against women, increased STI rates, and increased sexual dysfunction among young men.

Public health approaches have proved effective with other major problems from smoking, to lead poisoning, to HIV/AIDS. A public health approach is needed now to address pornography. There is a wealth of research coming from many fields that support these claims and the overwhelming anecdotal evidence is mounting; yet few realize the reality we face or have the courage to address it. Leadership and an investment are needed in a multi-disciplined, multi-pronged approach to be effective against a well-funded industry in order to prevent and combat the harms.

The National Center on Sexual Exploitation, together with other leading experts in many disciplines are working to expose the public health crisis of pornography. We are working to get the help of government, corporate and opinion leaders to begin to solve these complex problems.

Fast Facts:

Pornography is Pervasive:

  • It’s Every Where: Young children are now exposed to hardcore (mainstream) pornography at an alarming rate, with 27% of older millennials (age 25-30) reporting that they first viewed pornography before puberty.[i] Sixty-four percent of people 13–24 actively seek out pornography weekly or more often.[ii]
  • Both Male and Female Users: While hardcore pornography users are typically male, female use is increasing. Teenage girls and young women are significantly more likely to actively seek out porn than women over age 25.[iii]
  • Unmanageable at the Individual Level: The pervasive depictions of softcore and hardcore pornography in popular culture, and their easy accessibility via streaming and mobile devises, produce problems and significant risks outside the ability of individuals and families to manage on their own.
  • Like the Tobacco Industry, the Pornography Industry is Creating a Public Health Crisis. Despite tobacco’s former widespread use and acceptance in American culture, once its harms became apparent, society took action and adopt dramatic new policies to limit the harmful effects of smoking. Similarly we believe that people need to be protected from pornography exposure, and be made aware of the risks associated with pornography use. Additionally, pornography should not be socially endorsed, normalized, or presented as cool.

Impact on Sexual Violence:

  • Pornography Teaches that Women Enjoy Sexual Violence: Analysis of the 50 most popular pornographic videos (those bought and rented most often) found that 88% of scenes contained physical violence, and 49% contained verbal aggression.[iv] Eighty-seven percent of aggressive acts were perpetrated against women, and 95% of their responses were either neutral or expressions of pleasure.[v]
  • Pornography Is Linked to Increased Sexual Violence: A 2015 meta-analysis of 22 studies from seven countries found that internationally the consumption of pornography was significantly associated with increases in verbal and physical aggression, among males and females alike.[vi]
  • Pornography Is Linked to Increased Female Sexual Victimization: A study of 14- to 19-year-olds found that females who watched pornographic videos were at significantly greater likelihood of being victims of sexual harassment or sexual assault.[vii]

Impact on the Brain:

  • The Research Is In: Since 2009, there have been 30 major studies that have revealed porn has negative and detrimental impacts on the brain. [viii]
  • Pornography Use Shrinks Brain: A 2014 study found that increased pornography use is linked to decreased brain matter in the areas of motivation and decision-making, impaired impulse control, and desensitization to sexual reward. [ix]
  • Pornography is Like Cocaine: Pornography hijacks the brain’s reward systems the same way that cocaine does. [x]
  • The Addiction Gets Worse: A 2015 study from Cambridge found that pornography use can drive novelty-seeking, so users need more and more extreme content over time in order achieve the same level of arousal. [xi]

Impact on Sexually Transmitted Diseases:

  • Pornography and STI’s: Pornography use among adult males in America is associated with increased engagement in sexual behaviors that increase the risk of STIs. In multiple studies, internet pornography consumption was positively associated with having sex with multiple partners, engaging in paid sex, and having had extramarital sex. [xii]
  • Increased STI’s Among Adolescent Minority Females: Exposure to X-rated movies among Black females 14 to 18 years old was associated with being more likely to have negative attitudes toward using condoms, to have multiple sex partners, to have sex more frequently, to have not used contraception during the last intercourse, to have not used contraception in the past 6 months, to have a strong desire to conceive, and to test positive for chlamydia. [xiii]

Impact on Females:

  • Negative Body Image and Pressure to Perform Pornographic Acts: As a result of viewing pornography women reported lowered body image, criticism from their partners regarding their bodies, increased pressure to perform acts seen in pornographic films, and less actual sex, while men reported being more critical of their partners’ body and less interested in actual sex. [xiv]
  • Increased Marital Rape: Males who use pornography and go to strip clubs were found to engage in more sexual abuse, stalking, and marital rape than abusers who do not use pornography and go to strip clubs. [xv]

Impact on Males:

  • Leads to Pornography-Induced Erectile Dysfunction (PIED): A 2015 study on pornography users found that 20.3% said “one motive for their porn use was to maintain arousal with their partner.” It also found that pornography use was linked to higher sexual desire, but lower overall sexual satisfaction, and lower erectile function. [xvi]
  • Young Men and PIED: Young men are experiencing increasing rates of PIED. In the early 2000s, the PIED rate among European men was approximately 13%. In 2011 young Europeans (18-40) had ED rates of 14-28%. The dramatic increase in ED rates among young men coincides with the sharp increase in the availability and pervasiveness of Internet pornography. [xvii]
  • Negative Body Image: A 2015 study found that men’s frequency of pornography use is positively linked to body image insecurity regarding muscularity and body fat, and to increased anxiety in romantic relationships. [xviii]

Impact on Relationships:

  • Dissatisfaction with Partners: Research has demonstrated that the more pornography a man watches, the more likely he is to deliberately conjure images of pornography during sex to maintain arousal, and to experienced decreased enjoyment intimate behaviors with a partner. [xix]
  • Extramarital Affairs: A study found that persons ever having an extramarital affair were more than 3 times more apt to have used Internet pornography than ones who had lacked affairs. Other research affirms that pornography consumption is associated with more positive attitudes towards extramarital affairs. [xx]

You can download the Pornography & Public Health: Research Summary here.

 

 


[i] Barna Group, “News Conference on Barna’s New Study: ‘The Porn Phenomenon,’” (January 15, 2016), https://www.barna.org/blog/culture-media/barna-group/porn-press-conference#.VrS9OrSJndl (accessed June 27, 2016).

[ii] Barna Group, The Porn Phenomenon: The Impact of Pornography in the Digital Age,” (Ventura, CA: Josh McDowell Ministry, 2016).

[iii] Ibid.

[iv] Ana J. Bridges, Robert Wosnitzer, Erica Scharrer, Chyng Sun, and Rachael Liberman, “Aggression and Sexual Behavior in Best-Selling Pornography Videos: A Content Analysis Update,” Violence against Women 16, no. 10 (2010): 1065–1085.

[v] Ibid.

[vi] Paul J. Wright, Robert S. Tokunaga, and Ashley Kraus, “A Meta-Analysis of Pornography Consumption and Actual Acts of Sexual Aggression in General Population Studies,” Journal of Communication 66, no. 1 (February 2016): 183–205.

[vii] Silvia Bonino, Silvia Ciairano, Emanuela Rabagliette, and Elena Cattelino, “Use of Pornography and Self-Reported Engagement in Sexual Violence among Adolescents,” European Journal of Developmental Psychology 3, no. 3 (2006):265-288.

[viii] Your Brain on Porn, “Brain Studies on Porn Users,” (2014) http://yourbrainonporn.com/brain-scan-studies- porn-users (accessed July 13, 2016).

[ix] Simone Kühn and Jürgen Gallinat, “Brain Structure and Functional Connectivity Associated with Pornography Consumption,” JAMA Psychiatry 71, no. 7 (2014): 827–834.

Donald L. Hilton, Jr., and Clark Watts, “Pornography Addiction: A Neuroscience Perspective,”Surgical Neurology International 2, no. 19 (2011).

[x] Hilton, ibid

Kühn, ibid; Shane W. Kraus, Valerie Voon, and Marc N. Potenza, “Neurobiology of Compulsive Sexual Behavior: Emerging Science,” Neuropsychopharmacology 41 (2016): 385-386; D.L Wallace, V. Vialou, T.L. Carle-Florence, S. Chakravarty, A. Kumar, D.L. Graham, T.A. Green, et al., “The Influence of DeltaFosB in the Nucleus Accumbens on Natural Reward-Related Behavior,” Journal of Neuroscience 8, no. 28 (2008):10272-10277.

“Sexual Behavior: Emerging Science,” Neuropsychopharmacology 41 (2016): 385-386; D.L Wallace, V. Vialou, T.L. Carle-Florence, S. Chakravarty, A. Kumar, D.L. Graham, T.A. Green, et al., “The Influence of DeltaFosB in the Nucleus Accumbens on Natural Reward-Related Behavior,” Journal of Neuroscience 8, no. 28 (2008):10272-10277.

[xi] Voon, ibid.

[xii] Paul J. Wright and Ashley K. Randall, “Internet Pornography Exposure and Risky Sexual Behavior among Adult Males in the United States,” Computers in Human Behavior 28 (2012): 1410–1416

[xiii] Gina M. Wingood, Ralph J. DiClemente, Kathy Harrington, Suzy Davies, Edward W. Hook, and M. Kim Oh, “Exposure to X-Rated Movies and Adolescent’s Sexual and Contraceptive-Related Attitudes and Behaviors,” Pediatrics 107, no. 5 (2001): 1116–1119.

[xiv] Julie M. Albright, “Sex in America Online: An Exploration of Sex, Marital Status, and Sexual Identity in Internet Sex Seeking and Its Impacts,” Journal of Sex Research 45 (2008): 175–186.

[xv] C. Simmons, P. Lehmann, and S. Collier-Tenison, “Linking Male Use of the Sex Industry tonControlling Behaviors in Violent Relationships: An Exploratory Analysis,” Violence Against Women 14, no. 4 (2008): 406–417

[xvi] Samuel L. Perry, “Does Viewing Pornography Reduce Marital Quality Over Time? Evidence from Longitudinal Data,” Archives of Sexual Behavior, (2016).

Alfredo Nicolosi, Edward O. Laumann, Dale B. Glasser, Edson D. Moreira, Jr., Anthony Paik, and Clive Gingell, “Sexual Behavior and Sexual Dysfunctions after Age 40: The Global Study of Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors,” Urology 64 (2004): 991–997.

[xvii] Ivan Landripet and Aleksandar Štulhofer, “Is Pornography Use Associated with Sexual Difficulties and Dysfunctions among Younger Heterosexual Men?” The Journal of Sexual Medicine 12 (2015): 1136–1139.

[xviii] Tylka, T. L. (2014, February 10). No Harm in Looking, Right? Men’s Pornography Consumption, Body Image, and Well-Being. Psychology of Men & Masculinity. Advance online publication. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0035774

 

[xix] Chyng Sun, Ana Bridges, Jennifer Johnason, and Matt Ezzell, “Pornography and the Male Sexual Script: An Analysis of Consumption and Sexual Relations,” Archives of Sexual Behavior 45, no.4 (2014: 983–994.

[xx] Paul J. Wright, Robert S. Tokunaga, and Soyoung Bae, “More Than a Dalliance? Pornography Consumption and Extramarital Sex Attitudes among Married U.S. Adults,” Psychology of Popular Media Culture 3, no. 2 (2014): 97–109.

Research Summaries

  • Negative Body Image and Pressure to Perform Pornographic Acts: As a result of viewing pornography, women reported lowered body image, criticism from their partners regarding their bodies, increased pressure to perform acts seen in pornographic films, and less actual sex. Men reported being more critical of their partner’s body and less interested in actual sex.[i]

 

  • Acceptance of Rape Myths: Women who were exposed to pornography as children were more likely to accept rape myths and to have sexual fantasies that involved rape.[ii]

 

  • Domestic Violence & Sexual Abuse: The use of pornography by batterers significantly increased a battered woman’s odds of being sexually abused. Pornography use alone increased the odds by a factor of almost 2, and the combination of pornography and alcohol increased the odds of sexual abuse by a factor of 3.[iii] Other research has found that pornography use by batters is associated with learning about sex through pornography, imitation of behaviors seen in pornography, comparison of women to pornography performers, introduction of other sexual partners, filming sexual acts without consent, and the broader culture of pornography (e.g. fetishes).[iv]

 

  • Increased Marital Rape: Males who use pornography and go to strip clubs were found to engage in more sexual abuse, stalking, and marital rape than abusers who do not use pornography and go to strip clubs.[v]

[i] Julie M. Albright, “Sex in America Online: An Exploration of Sex, Marital Status, and Sexual Identity in Internet Sex Seeking and Its Impacts,” Journal of Sex Research 45 (2008): 175–186.

[ii] Shawn Corne, John Briere, and Lillian M. Esses, “Women’s Attitudes and Fantasies about Rape as a Function of Early Exposure to Pornography,” Journal of Interpersonal Violence 7, no. 4 (1992): 454–461.

[iii] Janet Hinson Shope, “When Words Are Not Enough: The Search for the Effect of Pornography on Abused Women,” Violence Against Women 10, no. 1 (2004): 56–72.

[iv] Walter S. DeKeseredy and Amanda Hall-Sanchez, “Adult Pornography and Violence against Women in the Heartland: Results from a Rural Southeast Ohio Study,” Violence against Women (May 2016), 1–20.

[v] C. Simmons, P. Lehmann, and S. Collier-Tenison, “Linking Male Use of the Sex Industry to Controlling Behaviors in Violent Relationships: An Exploratory Analysis,” Violence Against Women 14, no. 4 (2008): 406–417.

  • Lower Sexual Satisfaction and Sexual Dysfunction: A 2015 study of online sexual activities among males found 20.3% reported that “one motive for their porn use was to maintain arousal with their partner.” It also found that pornography use was linked to higher sexual desire, but lower overall sexual satisfaction, and lower erectile function.[i] Other research has correlated pornography use with “negative effects on partnered sex, decreased enjoyment of sexual intimacy, less sexual and relationship satisfaction.”[ii]

 

  • Negative Body Image: A 2015 study found that men’s frequency of pornography use is positively linked to body image insecurity regarding muscularity and body fat, and to increased anxiety in romantic relationships.[iii]

 

  • Pornography Induced Erectile Dysfunction: Historically, ED has been viewed as an age-dependent problem, with rates in men ages 18–59 as low as 2–5%.[iv] In the early 2000s, the Global Study of Sexual Attitudes and Behavior (GSSAB) reported that the ED rate among men aged 40–80 was approximately 13%.[v] In 2011, among males aged 18–40 the GSSAB found ED rates of 14-28%.[vi] This dramatic increase in ED rates among young men coincides with the sharp increase in the availability and accessibility of Internet pornography tube sites.[vii]
    • A 2-year longitudinal study of sexually active young males aged 16–21 published in 2016, found that over several checkpoints during the 2 years, they reported:
  • low sexual satisfaction (47.9%)
  • low desire (46.2%)
  • problems in erectile function (45.3%)[viii]
    • Another study reported that one in four patients seeking medical help for new onset ED were under 40, with severe ED rates being 10% higher than those in men over 40.[ix]
    • A study on men (mean age 36) seeking help for excessive sexual behavior—frequent use of pornography and masturbation—found that ED combined with low desire for partnered sex is a common observation in clinical practice.[x]
    • A study examining subgroups of men struggling with sexual compulsivity, found that among those who reported seven or more hours of pornography viewing (or seven episodes of masturbation) per week, 71% reported sexual dysfunctions, and 33% reported delayed ejaculation.[xi]
    • A Cambridge University study that was evenly divided between men with compulsive sexual behavior and those without, found that 84% of those with CSB experienced diminished libido or erectile function in physical relationships with women.[xii]

 

  • Correlated to Male Sexual Objectification of Women and Attitudes Supporting Violence Against Women: Among collegiate men, frequency of exposure to men’s lifestyle magazines, reality TV programs that objectify women, and pornography, predicted more objectified cognitions about women and stronger attitudes supportive of violence against women. [xiii]

 

  • Risky Behaviors and Other Harms: For males, increased pornography use is correlated with more sex partners, more alcohol use, more binge drinking, greater acceptance of sex outside of marriage for married individuals, greater acceptance of sex before marriage, and less child centeredness during marriage.[xiv]

 

  • Pornography as Sex Ed: A study of male high school seniors in Sweden found that nearly 70% of those who frequently used pornography reported that pornography made them want to try out what they had seen compared to 42% of boys in a reference group.[xv] Frequent users of pornography viewed all forms of pornography more often, especially advanced or more deviant forms of pornography including violence and sexual abuse of children and animals.[xvi]

 

  • Sexual Harassment and Coercion: A study of 804 Italian males and females aged 14 to 19, found that males who viewed pornography were significantly more likely to report having sexually harassed a peer or forcing someone to have sex.[xvii]

[i] Aline Wéry and Joel Billieux, “Online Sexual Activities: An Exploratory Study of Problematic and Non-Problematic Usage Patterns in a Sample of Men,” Computers in Human Behavior 56 (2016): 257–266.

[ii] Brian Y. Park, Gary Wilson, Jonathan Berger, Matthew Christman, Bryn Reina, Frank Bishop, Warren P. Klam, and Andrew P. Doan, “Is Internet Pornography Causing Sexual Dysfunctions? A Review with Clinical Reports,” Behavioral Sciences 6, no. 17 (2016): 1–25.

[iii] Wéry, ibid.

[iv] Park, ibid.

[v] Alfredo Nicolosi, Edward O. Laumann, Dale B. Glasser, Edson D. Moreira, Jr., Anthony Paik, and Clive Gingell, “Sexual Behavior and Sexual Dysfunctions after Age 40: The Global Study of Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors,” Urology 64 (2004): 991–997.

[vi] Ivan Landripet and Aleksandar Štulhofer, “Is Pornography Use Associated with Sexual Difficulties and Dysfunctions among Younger Heterosexual Men?” The Journal of Sexual Medicine 12 (2015): 1136–1139.

[vii] Park, ibid.

[viii] Lucia F. Sullivan, Lori A. Brotto, E. Sandra Byers, Jo Ann Majerovich, and Judith A. Wuest, “Prevalence and Characteristics of Sexual Functioning among Sexually Experienced Middle to Late Adolescents,” The Journal of Sexual Medicine 11 (2014): 630–641.

[ix] Paolo Capogrosso, et al., “One Patient Out of Four with Newly Diagnosed Erectile Dysfunction Is a Young Man—Worrisome Picture from the Everyday Clinical Practice,” The Journal of Sexual Medicine 10 (2013): 1833–1841.

[x] Verena Klein, Tanja Jurin, Peer Briken, and Aleksandar Štulhofer, “Erectile Dysfunction, Boredom, and Hypersexuality among Couple Men from Two European Countries,” The Journal of Sexual Medicine 12, no. 11 (2015):2160–2167.

[xi] Katherine S. Sutton, Natalie Stratton, Jennifer Pytyck, Nathan J. Kolla, and James M. Cantor, “Patient Characteristics by Type of Hypersexuality Referral: A Quantitative Chart Review of 115 Consecutive Male Cases,” Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy 41, no. 6 (2015): 563–580.

[xii] Valerie Voon, Thomas B. Mole, Paula Banca, Laura Porter, Laurel Morris, Simon Mitchell, Tatyana R. Lapa, et al., “Neural Correlates of Sexual Cue Reactivity in Individuals with and without Compulsive Sexual Behaviors,” PLOS ONE 9, no. 7 (2014):1–10.

[xiii] Paul J. Wright and Robert S. Tokunaga, “Men’s Objectifying Media Consumption, Objectification of Women, and Attitudes Supportive of Violence against Women,” Archives of Sexual Behavior 45, no. 4 (2016): 955–64.

[xiv] Jason S. Carroll, Laura L. Padilla-Walker, Larry J. Olson, Chad D. Olson, Carolyn McNamara Barry, Stephanie D. Madsen, “Generation XXX: Pornography Acceptance and Use Among Emerging Adults,” Journal of Adolescent Research 23, no. 1 (2008): 6–30; Svedin, ibid.

[xv] Svedin, ibid.

[xvi] Ibid.

[xvii] Bonino, ibid.

 

  • Pornography and STI’s: Pornography use among adult males in America is associated with increased engagement in sexual behaviors that increase the risk of STIs. Internet pornography consumption has been positively associated with having sex with multiple partners, engaging in paid sex, and having had extramarital sex.[i]

 

  • Increased STI’s Among Adolescent Minority Females: Exposure to X-rated movies among Black females 14 to 18 years old was associated with being more likely to have negative attitudes toward using condoms, to have multiple sex partners, to have sex more frequently, to have not used contraception during the last intercourse, to have not used contraception in the past 6 months, to have a strong desire to conceive, and to test positive for chlamydia.[ii]

[i] Paul J. Wright and Ashley K. Randall, “Internet Pornography Exposure and Risky Sexual Behavior among Adult Males in the United States,” Computers in Human Behavior 28 (2012): 1410–1416.

[ii] Gina M. Wingood, Ralph J. DiClemente, Kathy Harrington, Suzy Davies, Edward W. Hook, and M. Kim Oh, “Exposure to X-Rated Movies and Adolescent’s Sexual and Contraceptive-Related Attitudes and Behaviors,” Pediatrics 107, no. 5 (2001): 1116–1119.

  • Dissatisfaction with Partners: Research has demonstrated that the more pornography a man watches, the more likely he is to deliberately conjure images of pornography during sex to maintain arousal, and to experience decreased enjoyment of intimate behaviors with a partner.[i]

 

  • Extramarital Affairs: A study found that persons who have had an extramarital affair were more than 3 times more apt to have used Internet pornography than ones who had lacked affairs.[ii] Other research affirms that pornography consumption is associated with more positive attitudes towards extramarital affairs.[iii]

 

  • Negative Impact on Marital Quality: A longitudinal study of married couples found that those who used pornography more often reported lower satisfaction with their sex-life and decision-making as a couple. Pornography use was strongly and negatively related to marital quality over time. “The findings provide qualified support for the notion that more frequent pornography viewing—rather than simply being a proxy for the participants’ dissatisfaction with sex-life or marital decision-making—may negatively influence marital quality over time.”[iv]

 

  • Earlier Sexual Debut, Multiple Partners, and Risky Sexual Practices: Pornography consumption is linked to initiating sex at an earlier age, multiple sexual partners, more frequent practice of anal sex, use of psychoactive substances, and lack of protection against STIs.[v] Bulot, Leurent, and Collier (2015) report that, “All the work done in this area is in fact unanimous in concluding that pornography is a pervasive influence on young people.”[vi]

 

  • Casual Sexual Behavior: Longitudinal research has found that pornography exposure was associated with a nearly twofold increase in the odds of casual sexual behavior. This association was found even after controlling for age, ethnicity, religiosity, education, and gender. Casual sex increases the risk of undesirable outcomes such as physical and sexual aggression, STIs, and unwanted pregnancies.[vii]

 

  • Internet Addiction: Longitudinal research has found that among Internet activities, searching for pornography has the most addictive potential and should be regarded as the most important risk factor for the development of Compulsive Internet Use (also referred to as Internet addiction).[viii]

[i] Chyng Sun, Ana Bridges, Jennifer Johnason, and Matt Ezzell, “Pornography and the Male Sexual Script: An Analysis of Consumption and Sexual Relations,” Archives of Sexual Behavior 45, no. 4 (2014: 983–994.

[ii] Steven Stack, Ira Wasserman, and Roger Kern, “Adult Social Bonds and Use of Internet Pornography,” Social Science Quarterly 85 (2004): 75–88.

[iii] Paul J. Wright, Robert S. Tokunaga, and Soyoung Bae, “More Than a Dalliance? Pornography Consumption and Extramarital Sex Attitudes among Married U.S. Adults,” Psychology of Popular Media Culture 3, no. 2 (2014): 97–109.

[iv] Samuel L. Perry, “Does Viewing Pornography Reduce Marital Quality Over Time? Evidence from Longitudinal Data,” Archives of Sexual Behavior, (2016).

[v] C. Bulot, B. Leurent, and F. Collier, “Pornography Sexual Behavior and Risk Behaviour at University,” Sexologies 24, (2015): 78–83; Debra K. Braun-Courville and Mary Rojas, ibid; Jane D. Brown and Kelly L. L’Engle, ibid; Elizabeth M. Morgan, “Associations between Young Adults’ Use of Sexually Explicit Materials and Their Sexual Preference, Behaviors, and Satisfaction,” The Journal of Sex Research 48, no. 6 (2011): 520–530; Shane W. Kraus and Brenda Russell, “Early Sexual Experiences: The Role of Internet Access and Sexually Explicit Material,” Cyberpsychology & Behavior 11, no. 2 (2008): 162–168.

[vi] Bulot, Leurent, and Collier, ibid.

[vii] Paul J. Wright, “A Longitudinal Analysis of US Adults’ Pornography Exposure. Sexual Socialization, Selective Exposure, and the Moderating Role of Unhappiness,” Journal of Media Psychology 24, no. 2 (2012): 67–76.

[viii] G.J. Meerkerk, R. J. J. M. V. D. Eijnden, and H.F.L. Garresten, “Predicting Compulsive Internet Use: It’s All about Sex!” CyberPsychology & Behavior 91, no. 9 (2006): 95–103.

  • The Research Is In: Since 2011, there have been 26 major studies which reveal pornography use has negative and detrimental impacts on the brain.[i]

 

  • Shrinks Brain: A 2014 study of the brain scans of 64 pornography users found that increased pornography use (i.e. pornography dosage) is linked to decreased brain matter in the areas of the brain associated with motivation and decision-making, and contributed to impaired impulse control and desensitization to sexual reward.[ii] Thus the study demonstrated that pornography use can produce physical, anatomic change in the brain—a hallmark of addiction.[iii]

 

  • Hijacks the Brain’s Reward System: Motivation and reward are regulated by the mesolimbic system. There is ample evidence that the mesolimbic system is activated in response to both substance abuse and natural rewards such as sex.[iv] Addiction occurs when the pleasure/rewards pathways of the brain are hijacked by drugs such as cocaine or by natural process vital to survival such as eating and sex.[v] The constant novelty of Internet pornography, as well as properties such as violation of expectations, anticipation of reward, and the act of seeking (i.e. surfing) stimulate mesolimbic dopamine activity.[vi] Growing evidence suggests that pornography use hijacks the brain’s reward system in the same way that drug use does.[vii]

 

  • The Addiction Gets Worse: Using functional MRI, a 2015 study from Cambridge found that compulsive sexual behavior is characterized by novelty-seeking, conditioning, and habituation to sexual stimuli in males—meaning users need more extreme content over time in order achieve the same level of arousal. The study also identified a dissociation between desiring or wanting but not liking sexually explicit materials—a finding consistent with theories of incentive motivation underlying drug addiction.[viii]

[i] Your Brain on Porn, “Brain Studies on Porn Users,” (2014) http://yourbrainonporn.com/brain-scan-studies-porn-users (accessed July 13, 2016).

[ii] Simone Kühn and Jürgen Gallinat, “Brain Structure and Functional Connectivity Associated with Pornography Consumption,” JAMA Psychiatry 71, no. 7 (2014): 827–834.

[iii] Donald L. Hilton, Jr., and Clark Watts, “Pornography Addiction: A Neuroscience Perspective,” Surgical Neurology International 2, no. 19 (2011).

[iv] K.S. Frohmader, J. Wiskerke, R.A, Wise, M.N. Lehman, and L.M. Coolen, “Methamphetamine Acts on Subpopulations of Neurons Regulating Sexual Behavior in Male Rats,” Neuroscience 166, (2010): 771–784.

[v] Hilton, ibid.

[vi] Park, ibid.

[vii] Kühn, ibid; Shane W. Kraus, Valerie Voon, and Marc N. Potenza, “Neurobiology of Compulsive Sexual Behavior: Emerging Science,” Neuropsychopharmacology 41 (2016): 385-386; D.L Wallace, V. Vialou, T.L. Carle-Florence, S. Chakravarty, A. Kumar, D.L. Graham, T.A. Green, et al., “The Influence of DeltaFosB in the Nucleus Accumbens on Natural Reward-Related Behavior,” Journal of Neuroscience 8, no. 28 (2008):10272-10277.

[viii] Voon, ibid.

Contrary to popularly held beliefs, obscenity (most hardcore pornography) is not protected Free Speech. In fact, federal obscenity laws, which are not being enforced, prohibit distribution of hardcore, obscene pornography on the Internet, on cable/satellite or hotel/motel TV and in sexually oriented businesses and other retail shops. See EndSexualExploitation.org/woip for more information.

Enforcement of obscenity laws does not raise Constitutional problem – In Chaplinksy v. New Hampshire, 315 U.S. 568, 571-572 (1942), the Supreme Court said: “There are certain well-defined and narrowly limited classes of speech, the prevention and punishment of which have never been thought to raise any Constitutional problem. These include the lewd and obscene…It has been well observed that such utterances are no essential part of any exposition of ideas, and are of such slight social value as a step to truth that any benefit that may be derived from them is clearly outweighed by the social interest in order and morality.

Obscenity is not within the area of constitutionally protected speech or press – In Roth v. United States, 354 U.S. 476 (1957), Justice Brennan observed that “this Court has always assumed that obscenity is not protected by the freedoms of speech and press” (at 481). In Roth, the Supreme Court went on to hold that obscenity is “not within the area of constitutionally protected speech or press” (at 485).

First Amendment was intended to protect ideas and debate, not obscene material – In Miller v. California, 413 U.S. 15, 34 (1973), the Supreme Court said: “[T]o equate the free and robust exchange of ideas and political debate with commercial exploitation of obscene material demeans the grand conception of the First Amendment and its high purposes in the historic struggle for freedom. It is a ‘misuse of the great guarantees of free speech and…press.’”
More recently, in Ashcroft v. ACLU, 535 U.S. 564!(2002), the Supreme Court rejected a constitutional challenge to application of obscenity laws to the Internet. See also, United States v. Extreme Associates, 431 F.3d 150 (3rd Cir. 2005), cert. den., 547 U.S. 1143 (2006).

Adult (>18 years old) exposure to pornographic media is connected with:

  1. Believing a rape victim enjoyed rape
  2. Believing women suffer less from rape
  3. Believing women in general enjoy rape
  4. Believing a rape victim experienced pleasure and “got what she wanted”
  5. Believing women make false accusations of rape
  6. Believing rapist deserve less jail time
  7. More acceptance of the rape myth
  8. More acceptance of violence against women
  9. More adversarial sex beliefs
  10. Increasing their estimates of how often people engage in sex with violence
  11. More self-reported likelihood of forcing a women sexually
  12. More self-reported likelihood of rape
  13. Creating more sexually violent fantasies to get aroused
  14. Engaging in more sexual harassment behaviors
  15. More likelihood of forcing a woman sexually
  16. More likelihood of future rape
  17. Using physical coercion to have sex
  18. Using verbal coercion to have sex
  19. Using drugs and alcohol to sexually coerce women
  20. Having engaged in rape
  21. Having engaged in date rape
  22. Having engaged in marital rape
  23. Being an adult sex offender
  24. Being a child molester
  25. Being an incest offender
  26. Engaging in sexual abuse of a battered spouse
  27. More willingness to have sex with 13-14 year olds
  28. More sexual attraction to children
  29. Having sexually abused children

Studies supporting these points

  1. Believing a rape victim enjoyed rape

 

Check, J. & Malamuth, N. (1985). An empirical assessment of some feminist hypotheses about rape. International Journal of Women’s Studies, 8, 414-423.

 

Ohbuchi, K. Ikeda, T. & Takeuchi, G. (1994). Effects of violent pornography upon viewers rape myth beliefs: A study of Japanese males. Psychology, Crime & Law, 1, 71-81.

 

  1. Believing women suffer less from rape

 

Check, J. & Malamuth, N. (1985). An empirical assessment of some feminist hypotheses about rape. International Journal of Women’s Studies, 8, 414-423.

 

  1. Believing women in general enjoy rape

 

Check, J. & Malamuth, N. (1985). An empirical assessment of some feminist hypotheses about rape. International Journal of Women’s Studies, 8, 414-423.

 

Ohbuchi, K. Ikeda, T. & Takeuchi, G. (1994). Effects of violent pornography upon viewers rape myth beliefs: A study of Japanese males. Psychology, Crime & Law, 1, 71-81.

 

  1. Believing a rape victim experienced pleasure and “got what she wanted”

 

Millburn, M., Mather, R. & Conrad, S. (2000). The effects of viewing R-rated movie scenes that objectify women on perceptions of date rape.  Sex Roles, 43, Nov 2000, 645-664.

 

 

  1. Believing women make false accusations of rape

 

Ohbuchi, K. Ikeda, T. & Takeuchi, G. (1994). Effects of violent pornography upon viewers rape myth beliefs: A study of Japanese males. Psychology, Crime & Law, 1, 71-81.

 

  1. Believing rapist deserve less jail time

 

Zillmann, D & J. Bryant. (1984). Effects of massive exposure to pornography. In Malamuth, N and Donnerstein, E. (Eds), Pornography and sexual aggression. San Diego, Academic Press.

 

  1. More acceptance of the rape myth

 

Check. J. V. P., & Guloien, T. H. (1989). The effects of repeated exposure to sexually violent pornography, nonviolent dehumanizing pornography, and erotica. In D. Zillmann & J. Bryan (Eds.), Pornography: Recent research, interpretations, and policy considerations (pp. 159-184). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

 

Weisz, M.G., & Earls, C. M. (1995). The effects of exposure to filmed sexual violence on attitudes toward rape. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 10, 71-84.

 

  1. More acceptance of violence against women

 

Allen, M., Emmers, T. M., Gebhardt, L., & Giery, M. (1995). Pornography and rape myth acceptance. Journal of Communication, 45, 5-26.

 

Weisz, M.G., & Earls, C. M. (1995). The effects of exposure to filmed sexual violence on attitudes toward rape. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 10, 71-84.

 

Hald, G., Malamuth, N. & Yuen, C. (2010).  Pornography and attitudes supporting violence against women: revisiting the relationship in non experimental studies. Aggressive Behavior, 36, 14-20.

 

 

  1. More adversarial sex beliefs

 

Check. J. V. P., & Guloien, T. H. (1989). The effects of repeated exposure to sexually violent pornography, nonviolent dehumanizing pornography, and erotica. In D. Zillmann & J. Bryan (Eds.), Pornography: Recent research, interpretations, and policy considerations (pp. 159-184). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

 

  1. Increasing their estimates of how often people engage in sex with violence

 

Zillmann, D & J. Bryant. (1984). Effects of massive exposure to pornography. In Malamuth, N and Donnerstein, E. (Eds), Pornography and sexual aggression. San Diego, Academic Press.

 

 

 

 

  1. More self-reported likelihood of rape

 

Check. J. V. P., & Guloien, T. H. (1989). The effects of repeated exposure to sexually violent pornography, nonviolent dehumanizing pornography, and erotica. In D. Zillmann & J. Bryan (Eds.), Pornography: Recent research, interpretations, and policy considerations (pp. 159-184). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

 

  1. More self-reported likelihood of forced sex acts

 

Check. J. V. P., & Guloien, T. H. (1989). The effects of repeated exposure to sexually violent pornography, nonviolent dehumanizing pornography, and erotica. In D. Zillmann & J. Bryan (Eds.), Pornography: Recent research, interpretations, and policy considerations (pp. 159-184). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

 

  1. Creating more sexually violent fantasies to get aroused

 

Malamuth, N. (1981). Rape fantasies as a function of exposure to violent sexual stimuli. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 10, 33-47.

 

  1. Engaging in more sexual harassment behaviors

 

Barak, A., Fisher, W.A., Belfry, S., & Lashambe, D. R. (1999). Sex, guys, and cyberspace: Effects of internet pornography and individual differences on men’s attitudes toward women. Journal of Psychological and Human Sexuality, 11, 63-92.

 

Vega, V. & Malamuth, N. (2007).  Predicting sexual aggression: The role of pornography

in the context of general and specific risk factors. Aggressive Behavior, 33, 104–117.

 

 

  1. More likelihood of forcing a woman sexually

 

Boeringer, S.B. (1994). Pornography and sexual aggression: Associations of violent and nonviolent depictions with rape and rape proclivity. Deviant Behavior, 15, 289-304.

 

  1. More likelihood of future rape

 

Check. J. V. P., & Guloien, T. H. (1989). The effects of repeated exposure to sexually violent pornography, nonviolent dehumanizing pornography, and erotica. In D. Zillmann & J. Bryan (Eds.), Pornography: Recent research, interpretations, and policy considerations (pp. 159-184). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

 

  1. Using physical coercion to have sex

 

Carr, J. & VanDeusen, K. (2004). Risk factors for male sexual aggression on college campuses.  Journal of Family Violence, 19, 279-289.

 

Crossman, L. (1995). Date rape and sexual aggression by college males: Incidence and the involvement of impulsivity, anger, hostility, psychopathology, peer influence and pornography use. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 55, 4640

 

  1. Using verbal coercion to have sex

 

Boeringer, S.B. (1994). Pornography and sexual aggression: Associations of violent and nonviolent depictions with rape and rape proclivity. Deviant Behavior, 15, 289-304.

 

  1. Using drugs and alcohol to sexually coerce women

 

Boeringer, S.B. (1994). Pornography and sexual aggression: Associations of violent and nonviolent depictions with rape and rape proclivity. Deviant Behavior, 15, 289-304.

 

  1. Having engaged in rape

 

Baron, L. & Straus, M. (1984). Sexual stratification, pornography, and rape in the United States. In N. Malamuth and E. Donnerstein (Eds) Pornography and Sexual Aggression.  New York: Academic Press.

 

Boeringer, S.B. (1994). Pornography and sexual aggression: Associations of violent and nonviolent depictions with rape and rape proclivity. Deviant Behavior, 15, 289-304.

 

Carr, J. & VanDeusen, K. (2004). Risk factors for male sexual aggression on college campuses.  Journal of Family Violence, 19, 279-289.

 

Crossman, L. (1995). Date rape and sexual aggression by college males: Incidence and the involvement of impulsivity, anger, hostility, psychopathology, peer influence and pornography use. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 55, 4640

 

Malamuth, N., Addison, T. & Koss, M. (2000). Pornography and sexual aggression: Are there reliable effects and can we understand them? Annual Review of Sex Research, 11, 26-68.

 

Marshall, W. L. (1988). The use of sexually explicit stimuli by rapists, child molesters and non-offenders. Journal of Sex Research, 25, 2, 267-288.

 

Vega, V. & Malamuth, N. (2007).  Predicting sexual aggression: The role of pornography

in the context of general and specific risk factors. Aggressive Behavior, 33, 104–117.

 

 

  1. Having engaged in date rape

 

Warshaw, R. (1988). I never called it rape. New York, Harper and Row.

 

  1. Having engaged in marital rape

 

Simmons, C. A, Lehmann, P & Collier-Tenison, S. (2008). Linking male use of the sex industry to controlling behaviors in violent relationships. Violence against Women, 14,  406-417.

 

  1. Being an adult sex offender

 

Marshall, W. L. (1988). The use of sexually explicit stimuli by rapists, child molesters and non-offenders. Journal of Sex Research, 25, 2, 267-288.

 

 

  1. Being a child molester

 

Marshall, W. L. (1988). The use of sexually explicit stimuli by rapists, child molesters and non-offenders. Journal of Sex Research, 25, 2, 267-288.

 

 

 

  1. Being an incest offender

 

Marshall, W. L. (1988). The use of sexually explicit stimuli by rapists, child molesters and non-offenders. Journal of Sex Research, 25, 2, 267-288.

 

  1. Engaging in sexual abuse of a battered spouse

 

Shope, J. (2004). When words are not enough: The search for the effect of pornography on abused women. Violence Against Women, 10, 1, 56-72.

 

Simmons, C. A., Lehmann, P. & Collier-Tennison, S. (2008). Linking male use of the sex industry to controlling behaviors in violent relationships: An exploratory analysis. Violence Against Women, 14, 406-417.

 

  1. More willingness to have sex with 13-14 year olds

 

Hegna, H., Mossige, S. & Wichstrom, L. (2004). Older adolescents’ positive attitudes toward younger adolescents as sexual partners. Adolescence, 39, 156, 627-651.

 

 

  1. More sexual attraction to children

 

Briere, J. & Runtz, M. (1989). University males sexual interest in children: Predicting potential indices of “pedophilia” in a nonforensic sample. Child Abuse and Neglect, 13, 65-75.

 

Smiljanich, K. & Briere, J. (1996). Self-reported sexual interest in children: Sex differences and psychosocial correlates in a university sample. Violence and Victims. 11, 1, 39-50.

 

  1. Having sexually abused children

 

Bourke, M. & Hernandez, A.  (2009). The Butner study redux: A report of the incidence of hands-on child victimization by child pornography offenders. Journal of Family Violence, 24, 183-191.

 

Carter, D. L., Prentky. R. A., Knight, R. A. & Vanderveer, P. L. (1987). Use of pornography in the criminal and developmental histories of sex offenders.Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 2, 2, 196-211.

 

Kingston, D. A., Fedoroff, P., Firestone, P., Curry, S., Bradford, J. M. (2008) Pornography use and sexual aggression: The impact of frequency and type of pornography use on recidivism among sexual offenders. Aggressive Behavior, 34, 4, 341-351.

 

Proulx, J., Perreault, C. & Ouimet, M.  (1999). Pathways in the offending process of extrafamilial sexual child molesters.  Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 11, 2, 117-129.

 

Seto, M. & Eke, A. (2005). The criminal histories and later offending of child pornography offenders. Sexual Abuse: Journal of Research and Treatment, 17, 2, 201-210.

 

Wheeler, D. L. (1997). The relationship between pornography usage and child molesting. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol 57(8-A), pp. 3691.

Adult (>18 years old) exposure to pornographic media is connected with:

  1. Greater acceptance of sex before marriage
  2. Having more sex partners
  3. Rating their partners as less attractive
  4. Being less satisfied with their partners sexual performance
  5. Greater desire for sex without emotional involvement
  6. More sex callousness
  7. Trying to get partners to act out scenes from pornographic films
  8. Increasing their estimates of how often people engage in sex with animals
  9. Increasing their estimates of how often people engage in sex with violence
  10. Increasing their estimates of how often people engage in sex in groups
  11. Going to prostitutes
  12. Greater acceptance of sex outside of marriage for married individuals
  13. More likely to have an affair
  14. Using more sexual terms to describe women
  15. Reduced support for the women’s liberation movement
  16. Less child centeredness during marriage
  17. Reduced desire for female children
  18. Believing that you don’t need to restrict pornography from children
  19. More alcohol use
  20. More binge drinking
  21. Engaging in more behavioral aggression
  22. Engaging in marital rape

Studies Supporting These Points

 

  1. Greater acceptance of sex before marriage

Carroll, J. S., Padilla-Walker, L. M., Nelson, L. J., Olson, C. D., Barry, C. M., & Madsen, S. (2008). Generation XXX: Pornography acceptance and use among emerging adults. Journal of Adolescent Research, 23, 1, 6-30.

 

  1. Having more sex partners

Carroll, J. S., Padilla-Walker, L. M., Nelson, L. J., Olson, C. D., Barry, C. M., & Madsen, S. (2008). Generation XXX: Pornography acceptance and use among emerging adults. Journal of Adolescent Research, 23, 1, 6-30.

 

  1. Rating their partners as less attractive

Weaver, J., Masland, J. L., & Zillmann, D. (1984). Effect of erotica on young men’s aesthetic perception of their female sexual partners. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 58, 929-930.

Zillmann, D. & Bryant, J. (1988). Pornography’s impact on sexual satisfaction. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 18, 438-453.

 

  1. Being less satisfied with their partners sexual performance

Zillmann, D. & Bryant, J. (1988). Pornography’s impact on sexual satisfaction. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 18, 438-453.

 

  1. Greater desire for sex without emotional involvement

Zillmann, D. & Bryant, J. (1988). Pornography’s impact on sexual satisfaction. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 18, 438-453.

 

  1. More sex callousness

Zillmann, D & J. Bryant. (1984). Effects of massive exposure to pornography. In Malamuth, N and Donnerstein, E. (Eds), Pornography and sexual aggression. San Diego, Academic Press.

 

  1. Trying to get partners to act out scenes from pornographic films

Cramer, E. & McFarlane, J. (1994). Pornography and abuse of women. Public Health Nursing, 11, 4, 268-272.

 

  1. Increasing their estimates of how often people engage in sex with animals

Zillmann, D & J. Bryant. (1984). Effects of massive exposure to pornography. In Malamuth, N and Donnerstein, E. (Eds), Pornography and sexual aggression. San Diego, Academic Press.

 

  1. Increasing their estimates of how often people engage in sex with violence

Zillmann, D & J. Bryant. (1984). Effects of massive exposure to pornography. In Malamuth, N and Donnerstein, E. (Eds), Pornography and sexual aggression. San Diego, Academic Press.

 

  1. Increasing their estimates of how often people engage in sex in groups

Zillmann, D & J. Bryant. (1984). Effects of massive exposure to pornography. In Malamuth, N and Donnerstein, E. (Eds), Pornography and sexual aggression. San Diego, Academic Press.

 

  1. Going to prostitutes

Monto, M. (1999). Focusing on the clients of street prostitutes: a creative approach to reducing violence against women. Final report for the National Institute of Justice. Available at www.ncjrs.org.

Stack, S., Wasserman, I. & Kern, R. (2004). Adult Social Bonds and Use of Internet Pornography. Social Science Quarterly, 85, 75-88.

 

  1. Greater acceptance of sex outside of marriage for married individuals

Carroll, J. S., Padilla-Walker, L. M., Nelson, L. J., Olson, C. D., Barry, C. M., & Madsen, S. (2008). Generation XXX: Pornography acceptance and use among emerging adults. Journal of Adolescent Research, 23, 1, 6-30.

 

  1. More likely to have an affair

Stack, S., Wasserman, I. & Kern, R. (2004). Adult Social Bonds and Use of Internet Pornography. Social Science Quarterly, 85, 75-88.

 

  1. Using more sexual terms to describe women

Frable, D. E. S., Johnson, A. E. & Kellman, H. (1997). Seeing masculine men, sexy women and gender differences:  Exposure to pornography and cognitive constructs of gender. Journal of Personality, 65, 311-355.

 

  1. Reduced support for the women’s liberation movement

Zillmann, D & J. Bryant. (1984). Effects of massive exposure to pornography. In Malamuth, N and Donnerstein, E. (Eds), Pornography and sexual aggression. San Diego, Academic Press.

 

  1. Less child centeredness during marriage

Carroll, J. S., Padilla-Walker, L. M., Nelson, L. J., Olson, C. D., Barry, C. M., & Madsen, S. (2008). Generation XXX: Pornography acceptance and use among emerging adults. Journal of Adolescent Research, 23, 1, 6-30.

 

  1. Reduced desire for female children

Zillmann, D. (1989). The effects of prolonged consumption of pornography. In D. Zillmann & J. Bryant (Eds.), Pornography: Research Advances and Policy Considerations  (pp. 127-158). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

 

  1. Believing that you don’t need to restrict pornography from children

Zillmann, D & J. Bryant. (1984). Effects of massive exposure to pornography. In Malamuth, N and Donnerstein, E. (Eds), Pornography and sexual aggression. San Diego, Academic Press.

 

  1. More alcohol use

Carroll, J. S., Padilla-Walker, L. M., Nelson, L. J., Olson, C. D., Barry, C. M., & Madsen, S. (2008). Generation XXX: Pornography acceptance and use among emerging adults. Journal of Adolescent Research, 23, 1, 6-30.

 

  1. More binge drinking

Carroll, J. S., Padilla-Walker, L. M., Nelson, L. J., Olson, C. D., Barry, C. M., & Madsen, S. (2008). Generation XXX: Pornography acceptance and use among emerging adults. Journal of Adolescent Research, 23, 1, 6-30.

 

  1. Engaging in more behavioral aggression

Donnerstein, E. (1984). Pornography: Its effects on violence against women.  In N. Malamuth and E. Donnerstein (Eds) Pornography and Sexual Aggression.  New York: Academic Press.

Allen, M., D’Allessio, D., & Brezgel, K. (1995). A metal-analysis summarizing the effects of pornography II: Aggression after exposure. Human Communication Research, 22, 258-283.

 

  1. Engaging in marital rape

Simmons, C. A., Lehmann, P. & Collier-Tennison, S. (2008). Linking male use of the sex industry to controlling behaviors in violent relationships: An exploratory analysis. Violence Against Women, 14, 406-417.

 

Adult (>18 years old) exposure to pornographic media is connected with:

  1. Believing a rape victim enjoyed rape
  2. Believing women suffer less from rape
  3. Believing women in general enjoy rape
  4. Believing a rape victim experienced pleasure and “got what she wanted”
  5. Believing women make false accusations of rape
  6. Believing rapist deserve less jail time
  7. More acceptance of the rape myth
  8. More acceptance of violence against women
  9. More likely to go to a prostitute and to go more frequently
  10. Increasing their estimates of how often people engage in sex with violence
  11. More self-reported likelihood of forcing a women sexually
  12. More self-reported likelihood of rape
  13. Creating more sexually violent fantasies to get aroused
  14. Engaging in more sexual harassment behaviors
  15. More likelihood of forcing a woman sexually
  16. More likelihood of future rape
  17. Using physical coercion to have sex
  18. Using verbal coercion to have sex
  19. Using drugs and alcohol to sexually coerce women
  20. Having engaged in rape
  21. Having engaged in date rape
  22. Having engaged in marital rape
  23. Being an adult sex offender
  24. Being a child molester
  25. Being an incest offender
  26. Engaging in sexual abuse of a battered spouse
  27. More willingness to have sex with 13-14 year olds
  28. More sexual attraction to children
  29. Having sexually abused children

Studies Supporting These Points

  1. Believing a rape victim enjoyed rape

Check, J. & Malamuth, N. (1985). An empirical assessment of some feminist hypotheses about rape. International Journal of Women’s Studies, 8, 414-423.

Ohbuchi, K. Ikeda, T. & Takeuchi, G. (1994). Effects of violent pornography upon viewers rape myth beliefs: A study of Japanese males. Psychology, Crime & Law, 1, 71-81.

 

  1. Believing women suffer less from rape

Check, J. & Malamuth, N. (1985). An empirical assessment of some feminist hypotheses about rape. International Journal of Women’s Studies, 8, 414-423.

 

  1. Believing women in general enjoy rape

Check, J. & Malamuth, N. (1985). An empirical assessment of some feminist hypotheses about rape. International Journal of Women’s Studies, 8, 414-423.

Ohbuchi, K. Ikeda, T. & Takeuchi, G. (1994). Effects of violent pornography upon viewers rape myth beliefs: A study of Japanese males. Psychology, Crime & Law, 1, 71-81.

 

  1. Believing a rape victim experienced pleasure and “got what she wanted”

Millburn, M., Mather, R. & Conrad, S. (2000). The effects of viewing R-rated movie scenes that objectify women on perceptions of date rape.  Sex Roles, 43, Nov 2000, 645-664.

 

  1. Believing women make false accusations of rape

Ohbuchi, K. Ikeda, T. & Takeuchi, G. (1994). Effects of violent pornography upon viewers rape myth beliefs: A study of Japanese males. Psychology, Crime & Law, 1, 71-81.

 

  1. Believing rapist deserve less jail time

Zillmann, D & J. Bryant. (1984). Effects of massive exposure to pornography. In Malamuth, N and Donnerstein, E. (Eds), Pornography and sexual aggression. San Diego, Academic Press.

 

  1. More acceptance of the rape myth

Check. J. V. P., & Guloien, T. H. (1989). The effects of repeated exposure to sexually violent pornography, nonviolent dehumanizing pornography, and erotica. In D. Zillmann & J. Bryan (Eds.), Pornography: Recent research, interpretations, and policy considerations (pp. 159-184). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Weisz, M.G., & Earls, C. M. (1995). The effects of exposure to filmed sexual violence on attitudes toward rape. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 10, 71-84.

 

  1. More acceptance of violence against women

Allen, M., Emmers, T. M., Gebhardt, L., & Giery, M. (1995). Pornography and rape myth acceptance. Journal of Communication, 45, 5-26.

Weisz, M.G., & Earls, C. M. (1995). The effects of exposure to filmed sexual violence on attitudes toward rape. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 10, 71-84.

Hald, G., Malamuth, N. & Yuen, C. (2010).  Pornography and attitudes supporting violence against women: revisiting the relationship in non experimental studies. Aggressive Behavior, 36, 14-20.

 

  1. More likely to go to a prostitute and to go more frequently

Monto, M. (1999). Focusing on the clients of street prostitutes: a creative approach to reducing violence against women. Final report for the National Institute of Justice. Available at www.ncjrs.org.

Stack, S., Wasserman, I. & Kern, R. (2004). Adult Social Bonds and Use of Internet Pornography. Social Science Quarterly, 85, 75-88.

 

  1. Increasing their estimates of how often people engage in sex with violence

Zillmann, D & J. Bryant. (1984). Effects of massive exposure to pornography. In Malamuth, N and Donnerstein, E. (Eds), Pornography and sexual aggression. San Diego, Academic Press.

 

  1. More self-reported likelihood of rape

Check. J. V. P., & Guloien, T. H. (1989). The effects of repeated exposure to sexually violent pornography, nonviolent dehumanizing pornography, and erotica. In D. Zillmann & J. Bryan (Eds.), Pornography: Recent research, interpretations, and policy considerations (pp. 159-184). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

 

  1. More self-reported likelihood of forced sex acts

Check. J. V. P., & Guloien, T. H. (1989). The effects of repeated exposure to sexually violent pornography, nonviolent dehumanizing pornography, and erotica. In D. Zillmann & J. Bryan (Eds.), Pornography: Recent research, interpretations, and policy considerations (pp. 159-184). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

 

  1. Creating more sexually violent fantasies to get aroused

Malamuth, N. (1981). Rape fantasies as a function of exposure to violent sexual stimuli. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 10, 33-47.

 

  1. Engaging in more sexual harassment behaviors

Barak, A., Fisher, W.A., Belfry, S., & Lashambe, D. R. (1999). Sex, guys, and cyberspace: Effects of internet pornography and individual differences on men’s attitudes toward women. Journal of Psychological and Human Sexuality, 11, 63-92.

Bonino, S., Ciairano, S. Rabaglietti, E. & Cattelino, E. (2006). Use of pornography and self-reported engagement in sexual violence among adolescents. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 3, 3, 265-288.

Brown, J. & L’Engle, K. (2009). X-Rated: Sexual attitudes and behaviors associated with U.S. early adolescents’ exposure to sexually explicit media. Communication Research, 36, 129-151.

Vega, V. & Malamuth, N. (2007).  Predicting sexual aggression: The role of pornography in the context of general and specific risk factors. Aggressive Behavior, 33, 104–117.

 

  1. More likelihood of forcing a woman sexually

Boeringer, S.B. (1994). Pornography and sexual aggression: Associations of violent and nonviolent depictions with rape and rape proclivity. Deviant Behavior, 15, 289-304.

 

  1. More likelihood of future rape

Check. J. V. P., & Guloien, T. H. (1989). The effects of repeated exposure to sexually violent pornography, nonviolent dehumanizing pornography, and erotica. In D. Zillmann & J. Bryan (Eds.), Pornography: Recent research, interpretations, and policy considerations (pp. 159-184). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

 

  1. Using physical coercion to have sex

Carr, J. & VanDeusen, K. (2004). Risk factors for male sexual aggression on college campuses.  Journal of Family Violence, 19, 279-289.

Crossman, L. (1995). Date rape and sexual aggression by college males: Incidence and the involvement of impulsivity, anger, hostility, psychopathology, peer influence and pornography use. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 55, 4640

 

  1. Using verbal coercion to have sex

Boeringer, S.B. (1994). Pornography and sexual aggression: Associations of violent and nonviolent depictions with rape and rape proclivity. Deviant Behavior, 15, 289-304.

 

  1. Using drugs and alcohol to sexually coerce women

Boeringer, S.B. (1994). Pornography and sexual aggression: Associations of violent and nonviolent depictions with rape and rape proclivity. Deviant Behavior, 15, 289-304.

 

  1. Having engaged in rape

Alexy, E., Burgess, A. & Prentky, R. (2009).  Pornography use as a risk marker for an aggressive pattern of behavior among sexually reactive children and adolescents. Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association, 14, 442-453.

Baron, L. & Straus, M. (1984). Sexual stratification, pornography, and rape in the United States. In N. Malamuth and E. Donnerstein (Eds) Pornography and Sexual Aggression.  New York: Academic Press.

Boeringer, S.B. (1994). Pornography and sexual aggression: Associations of violent and nonviolent depictions with rape and rape proclivity. Deviant Behavior, 15, 289-304.

Bonino, S., Ciairano, S. Rabaglietti, E. & Cattelino, E. (2006). Use of pornography and self-reported engagement in sexual violence among adolescents. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 3, 3, 265-288.

Carr, J. & VanDeusen, K. (2004). Risk factors for male sexual aggression on college campuses.  Journal of Family Violence, 19, 279-289.

Cramer, E. & McFarlane, J. (1994). Pornography and abuse of women. Public Health Nursing, 11, 4, 268-272.

Crossman, L. (1995). Date rape and sexual aggression by college males: Incidence and the involvement of impulsivity, anger, hostility, psychopathology, peer influence and pornography use. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 55, 4640

Malamuth, N., Addison, T. & Koss, M. (2000). Pornography and sexual aggression: Are there reliable effects and can we understand them? Annual Review of Sex Research, 11, 26-68.

Marshall, W. L. (1988). The use of sexually explicit stimuli by rapists, child molesters and non-offenders. Journal of Sex Research, 25, 2, 267-288.

Senn, C. (1993). The research on women and pornography: The many faces of harm. In D. E. H. Russell (Ed.), Making violence sexy. New York: Teachers College Press.

Vega, V. & Malamuth, N. (2007).  Predicting sexual aggression: The role of pornography in the context of general and specific risk factors. Aggressive Behavior, 33, 104–117.

 

  1. Having engaged in date rape

Warshaw, R. (1988). I never called it rape. New York, Harper and Row.

 

  1. Having engaged in marital rape

Simmons, C. A, Lehmann, P & Collier-Tenison, S. (2008). Linking male use of the sex industry to controlling behaviors in violent relationships. Violence against Women, 14,  406-417.

 

  1. Being an adult sex offender

Marshall, W. L. (1988). The use of sexually explicit stimuli by rapists, child molesters and non-offenders. Journal of Sex Research, 25, 2, 267-288.

 

  1. Being a child molester

Marshall, W. L. (1988). The use of sexually explicit stimuli by rapists, child molesters and non-offenders. Journal of Sex Research, 25, 2, 267-288.

 

  1. Being an incest offender

Marshall, W. L. (1988). The use of sexually explicit stimuli by rapists, child molesters and non-offenders. Journal of Sex Research, 25, 2, 267-288.

 

  1. Engaging in sexual abuse of a battered spouse

Shope, J. (2004). When words are not enough: The search for the effect of pornography on abused women. Violence Against Women, 10, 1, 56-72.

Simmons, C. A., Lehmann, P. & Collier-Tennison, S. (2008). Linking male use of the sex industry to controlling behaviors in violent relationships: An exploratory analysis. Violence Against Women, 14, 406-417.

Sommers, E. K. & Check, J. V. P. (1987). An empirical investigation of the role of pornography in the verbal and physical abuse of women. Violence and Victims, 2, 1, 189-209.

 

  1. More willingness to have sex with 13-14 year olds

Hegna, H., Mossige, S. & Wichstrom, L. (2004). Older adolescents’ positive attitudes toward younger adolescents as sexual partners. Adolescence, 39, 156, 627-651.

 

  1. More sexual attraction to children

Briere, J. & Runtz, M. (1989). University males sexual interest in children: Predicting potential indices of “pedophilia” in a nonforensic sample. Child Abuse and Neglect, 13, 65-75.

Smiljanich, K. & Briere, J. (1996). Self-reported sexual interest in children: Sex differences and psychosocial correlates in a university sample. Violence and Victims. 11, 1, 39-50.

 

  1. Having sexually abused children

Bourke, M. & Hernandez, A.  (2009). The Butner study redux: A report of the incidence of hands-on child victimization by child pornography offenders. Journal of Family Violence, 24, 183-191.

Carter, D. L., Prentky. R. A., Knight, R. A. & Vanderveer, P. L. (1987). Use of pornography in the criminal and developmental histories of sex offenders.Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 2, 2, 196-211.

Kingston, D. A., Fedoroff, P., Firestone, P., Curry, S., Bradford, J. M. (2008) Pornography use and sexual aggression: The impact of frequency and type of pornography use on recidivism among sexual offenders. Aggressive Behavior, 34, 4, 341-351.

Proulx, J., Perreault, C. & Ouimet, M.  (1999). Pathways in the offending process of extrafamilial sexual child molesters.  Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 11, 2, 117-129.

Seto, M. & Eke, A. (2005). The criminal histories and later offending of child pornography offenders. Sexual Abuse: Journal of Research and Treatment, 17, 2, 201-210.

Wheeler, D. L. (1997). The relationship between pornography usage and child molesting. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol 57(8-A), pp. 3691.

Young people (<18 years old) who have been exposed to sexualized media (both pornography and sexualized TV) have an increased likelihood of:

    1. Having intentions to engage in sexual intercourse
    2. Having earlier initiation of sex
    3. Having sexual activity more frequently
    4. Having more sex partners
    5. Having multiple lifetime sexual partners
    6. Having had more than one sexual partner in the last 3 months
    7. Having engaged in oral sex
    8. Having engaged in anal sex
    9. Having engaged in sexual intercourse
    10. Having a strong desire to conceive
    11. Becoming pregnant
    12. Testing positive for chlamydia
    13. Having negative attitudes toward using condoms
    14. Having not used contraception during the last intercourse
    15. Having not used contraception in the past 6 months
    16. Having used alcohol or other substances at last sexual encounter
    17. Having higher sexual permissiveness scores
    18. Having less progressive gender role attitudes
    19. Being more likely to see women as sex objects
    20. Being more accepting of sexual harassment
    21. Engaging in more sexual harassment perpetration
    22. Engaging in forced sex
    23. Being a juvenile sex offender

STUDIES SUPPORTING THESE POINTS

1. Having intentions to engage in sexual intercourse

L’Engle, K. L., Brown, J. & Kenneavy, K. (2006). The mass media are an important context for adolescents’ sexual behavior. Journal of Adolescent Health, 38, 4, 186-192.

2. Having earlier initiation of sex

Brown, J. & L’Engle, K. (2009). X-Rated: Sexual attitudes and behaviors associated with U.S. early adolescents’ exposure to sexually explicit media. Communication Research, 36, 129-151.

Brown, J., L’Engle, K., Pardun, C., Guo, G., Kenneavy, K., & Jackson, C. (2006). Sexy media matter: Exposure to sexual content in music, movies, television, and magazines predicts black and white adolescents’ sexual behavior. Pediatrics, 117, 1018-1027.

3. Having sexual activity more frequently

L’Engle, K. L., Brown, J. & Kenneavy, K. (2006). The mass media are an important context for adolescents’ sexual behavior. Journal of Adolescent Health, 38, 4, 186-192.

Wingood, G., DiClemente, R., Harrington, K., Davies, S., Hook, E., & Kim, M. (2001). Exposure to X-rated movies and adolescents’ sexual and contraceptive related attitudes and behaviors. Pediatrics, 107, 5, 1116-1119.

4. Having more sex partners

Wingood, G., DiClemente, R., Harrington, K., Davies, S., Hook, E., & Kim, M. (2001). Exposure to X-rated movies and adolescents’ sexual and contraceptive related attitudes and behaviors. Pediatrics, 107, 5, 1116-1119.

5. Having multiple lifetime sexual partners

Braun-Courville, D. & Rojas, M. (2009). Exposure to sexually explicit web sites and adolescent sexual attitudes and behaviors. Journal of Adolescent Health, 45, 156-162.

6. Having had more than one sexual partner in the last 3 months

Braun-Courville, D. & Rojas, M. (2009). Exposure to sexually explicit web sites and adolescent sexual attitudes and behaviors. Journal of Adolescent Health, 45, 156-162.

7. Having engaged in oral sex

Brown, J. & L’Engle, K. (2009). X-Rated: Sexual attitudes and behaviors associated with U.S. early adolescents’ exposure to sexually explicit media. Communication Research, 36, 129-151.

8. Having engaged in anal sex

Braun-Courville, D. & Rojas, M. (2009). Exposure to sexually explicit web sites and adolescent sexual attitudes and behaviors. Journal of Adolescent Health, 45, 156-162.

9. Having engaged in sexual intercourse

Brown, J. & L’Engle, K. (2009). X-Rated: Sexual attitudes and behaviors associated with U.S. early adolescents’ exposure to sexually explicit media. Communication Research, 36, 129-151.

Collins, R., Elliott, M., Berry, S., Kanouse, D., Kunkel, D., Hunter, S. & Miu, A. (2004). Watching sex on television predicts adolescent initiation of sexual behavior. Pediatrics, 114, 3, e280-e289.

10. Having a strong desire to conceive

Wingood, G., DiClemente, R., Harrington, K., Davies, S., Hook, E., & Kim, M. (2001). Exposure to X-rated movies and adolescents’ sexual and contraceptive related attitudes and behaviors. Pediatrics, 107, 5, 1116-1119.

11. Becoming pregnant

Chandra, A., Martino, S., Collins, R., Elliott, M., Berry, S., Kanouse, D. & Miu, A. (2008). Does watching sex on television predict teen pregnancy? Findings from a national longitudinal survey of youth. Pediatrics, 122, 1047-1054.

12. Testing positive for chlamydia

Wingood, G., DiClemente, R., Harrington, K., Davies, S., Hook, E., & Kim, M. (2001). Exposure to X-rated movies and adolescents’ sexual and contraceptive related attitudes and behaviors. Pediatrics, 107, 5, 1116-1119.

13. Having negative attitudes toward using condoms

Wingood, G., DiClemente, R., Harrington, K., Davies, S., Hook, E., & Kim, M. (2001). Exposure to X-rated movies and adolescents’ sexual and contraceptive related attitudes and behaviors. Pediatrics, 107, 5, 1116-1119.

14. Having not used contraception during the last intercourse

Wingood, G., DiClemente, R., Harrington, K., Davies, S., Hook, E., & Kim, M. (2001). Exposure to X-rated movies and adolescents’ sexual and contraceptive related attitudes and behaviors. Pediatrics, 107, 5, 1116-1119.

15. Having not used contraception in the past 6 months

Wingood, G., DiClemente, R., Harrington, K., Davies, S., Hook, E., & Kim, M. (2001). Exposure to X-rated movies and adolescents’ sexual and contraceptive related attitudes and behaviors. Pediatrics, 107, 5, 1116-1119.

16. Having used alcohol or other substances at last sexual encounter

Braun-Courville, D. & Rojas, M. (2009). Exposure to sexually explicit web sites and adolescent sexual attitudes and behaviors. Journal of Adolescent Health, 45, 156-162.

17. Having higher sexual permissiveness scores

Braun-Courville, D. & Rojas, M. (2009). Exposure to sexually explicit web sites and adolescent sexual attitudes and behaviors. Journal of Adolescent Health, 45, 156-162.
Brown, J. & L’Engle, K. (2009). X-Rated: Sexual attitudes and behaviors associated with U.S. early adolescents’ exposure to sexually explicit media. Communication Research, 36, 129-151.

18. Having less progressive gender role attitudes

Brown, J. & L’Engle, K. (2009). X-Rated: Sexual attitudes and behaviors associated with U.S. early adolescents’ exposure to sexually explicit media. Communication Research, 36, 129-151.

19. Being more likely to see women as sex objects

Peter, J. & Valkenburg, P. (2007). Adolescents’ exposure to a sexualized media environment and their notions of women as sex objects. Sex Roles, 56, 381–395.

20. Being more accepting of sexual harassment

Strouse, J., Goodwin, M. & Roscoe, B. (1994). Correlates of attitudes toward sexual harassment among early adolescents. Sex Roles, 31, 559-577.

21. Engaging in more sexual harassment perpetration

Bonino, S., Ciairano, S. Rabaglietti, E. & Cattelino, E. (2006). Use of pornography and self-reported engagement in sexual violence among adolescents. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 3, 3, 265-288.

Brown, J. & L’Engle, K. (2009). X-Rated: Sexual attitudes and behaviors associated with U.S. early adolescents’ exposure to sexually explicit media. Communication Research, 36, 129-151.

22. Engaging in forced sex

Bonino, S., Ciairano, S. Rabaglietti, E. & Cattelino, E. (2006). Use of pornography and self-reported engagement in sexual violence among adolescents. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 3, 3, 265-288.

23. Being a juvenile sex offender

Ford, M. & Linney, J. A. (1995). Comparative analysis of juvenile sexual offenders, violent nonsexual offenders and status offenders. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 10, 1, 56-70.

Definition of Pornography:

The term “pornography” is a generic, not a legal term. As noted by the Supreme Court in the landmark 1973 obscenity case, Miller v. California, 413 U.S. 15, 20, n.2, the term “pornography” derives from the Greek (harlot, and graphos, writing). The word now means “1: a description of prostitutes or prostitution 2. a depiction (as in a writing or painting) of licentiousness or lewdness: a portrayal of erotic behavior designed to cause sexual excitement.” (Webster’s Third New International Dictionary [Unabridged 1969])

Definition of Obscenity:

The term “obscenity” is a legal term, and in Miller v. California, the Supreme Court established a three-pronged test for determining whether a “work” (i.e., material or a performance) is obscene and therefore unprotected by the First Amendment. To be obscene, a judge and/or a jury must determine: First, that the average person, applying contemporary community standards, would find that the work, taken as a whole, appeals to the prurient interest; AND second, that the work depicts or describes in a patently offensive way, as measured by contemporary community standards, “hardcore” sexual conduct specifically defined by the applicable law; AND third, that a reasonable person would find that the work, taken as a whole, lacks serious literary, artistic, political and scientific value. (NOTE: Typical “hardcore pornography” [e.g., a website, DVD or magazine] consists of little if anything more than one depiction of hardcore sex after the other [i.e., it’s “wall-to-wall” sex].)

Videos

Growing Up with Porn: The Developmental and Societal Impact of Pornography on Children – Gail Dines, Culture Reframed

Ceremonial Signing of UT Resolution Recognizing Pornography as Public Health Crisis

CBN Report on Capitol Briefing – A Public Health Crisis: America Hijacked by Porn?

Sexual Obesity: Research on a Public Health Crisis

Growing Up in a Pornified Culture | Gail Dines | TEDxNave

Dawn Hawkins on the public health crisis from pornography

A Public Health Approach to Pornography

Pornography and the Colonization of Childhood

Pornography Addiction: A Supranormal Stimulus and Neuroplasticity

Long Term Consequences of Pornography Use: Overview of Research

Sex, Identity and Intimacy in a Porn Culture

Categories

Public health harms of pornography research flyer

NCOSE Updates

One Year Ago: The First State Declared Pornography a Public Health Crisis

One year ago today I joined Utah Governor Herbert and other allies at the historic signing of the first state resolution declaring pornography a public health crisis. Since then, South Dakota and Arkansas have passed the resolution, and it is being considered right now in half a dozen additional states. Even the Canadian Parliament passed […]

HIV Scare In The Porn Industry: Performers’ Health At Risk

Pornography production was temporarily put on hold in Los Angeles after an anonymous performer recently tested positive for HIV. The Free Speech Coalition—a lobby and PR arm of the pornography industry—said that the performer is currently being re-tested and that everyone should remember: “Fear, shame, and stigma are preventable.” “You know what else is preventable? […]

College Students Are Struggling With Pornography At An Unprecedented Rate

College students today are part of the “online generation.” As a result, the presence of pornography in their lives is nearly universal. One global survey of college students from four different countries (Canada, Germany, Sweden, and the U.S.) found that 76.5% of the sample used the Internet for “sexual entertainment” and 30.8% of American students reported engaging […]

Behind the Scenes of the Canadian Committee Investigating the Harms of Pornography

Guest Post courtesy of Strength To Fight—a Canadian-based group dedicated to addressing the harms of pornography. Across the Western world, politicians, health professionals, and the public are beginning to wake up to the reality that pandemic pornography use is doing enormous damage to the fabric of society. Marriages are collapsing under the weight of compulsive […]

Arkansas Just Declared Pornography a Public Health Crisis

Arkansas elected officials have passed a resolution formally recognizing the public health harms of pornography. “We are in the midst of a digital and sexual health revolution,” said Dawn Hawkins, Executive Director of the National Center on Sexual Exploitation. “Personal stories from millennials who experienced negative side effects from exposure to Internet pornography at a […]